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Home本期文章藏族福音事工的先驅--克省悟(1)

【福音與中華】藏族福音事工的先驅--克省悟(1)

 

編序:前不久有國內的親人轉來這篇在 "保羅的小站"
https://wemp.app/accounts/532d0f39-acad-4770-9c25-277203c4c6d9上刊登的文章,我感到非常驚喜,因為這正是發生在我的家鄉及週邊地區的事情,多年來我一直想了解基督教在我家鄉傳播的起始及發展,也想了解我母親生前從而得救,並且多年參與事奉的那間教會的建立和演變的過程。這篇文章正提供很多相關資訊。文章內容來自克省悟牧師的傳記:《藏族人的使徒——克省悟》(William Christie, Apostle to Tibet)一書,但由於篇幅太大,不適合本欄目全部刊出,所以我作了節選和編輯,好讓各位讀者能夠了解梗概。

譯者簡述背景:克省悟弟兄(1870 年-1955 年),蘇格蘭人,受美國宣道會差派,於 1895 年抵達甘肅,開始向當地藏族人和漢族人傳福音。在此後近 30 年的時間裡,他與其他宣教同工合力在甘肅的漢藏邊界地區建立多間教會,帶領許多漢族人和藏族人信主,留下深遠的影響。近 10 年來,筆者曾接觸過多位來自甘肅卓尼,臨潭和臨洮等地的基督徒(年齡在 20-40 歲之間),都與克省悟當年建立的教會有直接或間接的關系。2017 年,筆者有幸得到《藏族人的使徒——克省悟》(William Christie, Apostle to Tibet)一書,就決定把這本傳記譯成中文,與弟兄姊妹們一同記念這位屬靈前輩。

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(左圖)克省悟和一名中國信徒的合影   (右圖)霍華德•范•戴克英文原著封面


在宣道會成立之初,宣教士一般乘小型汽船前往遠東的宣教工場。經過海上的巨烈顛簸,他們發現 "太平洋" 其實一點都不 "太平"。在乘船航行三、四個星期後,宣教士們終於抵達中國。1892 年 5 月 2 日,克省悟抵達上海。

第一要務自然是學習當地的通行語言—漢語。學習語言的過程雖然帶來不少痛苦,但也同時使他們能夠了解中國的風俗習慣,熟悉中國人的偏見,並成功適應與本國完全相反的文化。

他和其他跟他一道學習的年輕的宣教士迫切地禱告,求上帝賜下講漢語的恩賜。監督跟他們說:"如果到下月的第一天你們還不能憑信心求得說漢語的恩賜,就請你們重新拿起書,通過學習來掌握這門語言。"

集中學語言的地方是離上海不算太遠的安徽省蕪湖市,努力學習17個月的語言之後,克省悟和另一位年輕的宣教士席儒珍都被分配到藏區,但兩人先被派往北京,以期提高漢語水平,並學習藏語。他們在清朝國都住了 11 個月,這段時間裡,兩位宣教士在一座藏傳佛教寺廟裡跟一些有學問的僧人學習藏語和藏文。結束在北京的學習後,他們返回蕪湖,準備啟程去遠方的西部。

在旅居中國的二年半期間裡,這兩名宣教先驅一直多方搜索藏區的消息。後來他們得知,進入藏區最好的跳板就是甘肅洮州(今甘肅省臨潭縣)。因此,他們於 1895 年 1 月 10 日離開漢口,乘坐帆船、篷車、驢轎、馬匹,一路沿著河流,穿過山岳和平原,冒著大雨、嚴寒和風雪,最終在4月6日抵達洮州。他們從沿海向內陸走了 2,250 英里,而在最後 1,500 英里的路上,只有 10 座宣教站。

抵達洮州後,他們發現這裡還沒有通電報,連清朝的郵差都不來。他們已經抵達了西藏(編者按:書中的 "西藏" 是指包括西藏自治區、青海省及甘肅、四川和雲南三省的藏族居住區在內的 "大藏區")邊界,這是漢藏分界線附近最後一座漢族城鎮,而當時的分界線就是洮河。

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甘肅夏河(拉卜欏寺所在地)、臨潭(舊稱 "洮州")
示意圖內中間的是甘肅省地形圖,左下方是今甘南藏族自治州地形圖

 

主既然施恩將兩人帶到這裡,也早就為他們預備了一位很有影響力的中國朋友,好護送他們進入藏區。抵達洮州不久,當地一位長者周貢生(編者按:周先生參加過清朝的科舉考試,得過 "貢生" 學位,他的兒子後來信了主,並成為牧師,家母曾在其教會事奉)就來到客棧,把他們接到一處更舒適的寓所。

後來,這位長者又為他們找了一座大宅子,內有兩個禮拜間、一間客廳、一間書房、一間餐廳、一間廚房、四間臥室、一間佣人房、一些儲藏室和馬廄,而每年的租金總共只有 17 美元!當然,那時美國的房租也很便宜,但是卻遠沒有這裡低廉!

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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