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【特稿】聖經真理的重尋(86)

 

教牧目的(約翰一書第一章)

本書是使徒約翰所寫一卷專論「愛」的書信,全書「愛」字出現超過五十次,文體簡潔,但神學深奧而又善用相對式的詞句,例如光暗、生死、真偽、上帝與惡,以表達真理。第一、二兩章以「上帝是光」為主題。本章一開始說明寫本書的目的(教牧的目的)(1-4節):是將愛的源頭主耶穌推薦出來,為使信徒與上帝相交,也與人有美好的團契,也願信徒得著喜樂。同時,既然「上帝是光」,乃與黑暗敵對(2:8,約1:5,3:9,8:12,12:46,西1:13,帖前5:4, 5),我們就不能又說與上帝相交,而又生活在黑暗中。首先要認清自己的罪:「我們若認自己的罪,上帝是信實的、公義的,必要赦免我們的罪,洗淨我們一切的不義」(9節)。

教牧關心(約翰一書第二章)

本章一開始說明教牧的關心:叫信徒不要犯罪,因為我們要與光明的上帝相交。那麼如何在生活上表現出來呢?(一)遵行主的道(3-6節),「人若說他住在主裡面,就該自己照主所行的去行」;(二)愛自己的弟兄(7-11節),「愛弟兄的就是住在光明中,在他並沒有絆跌的緣由」;(三)認清自己的身份(12-14節);(四)不要愛世界(15-17節);(五)防備敵基督者(18-23節);(六)勿忘主的教訓(24-29節)。在今日我們的生活中,以上各點都不可忽視,但最易忘記的,就是「不要愛世界和世界上的事(包括嫉妒、分爭、不包容、自以為是......),人若愛世界,愛父的心(包括公義、寬容、守主的道......)就不在他裡面了」。

神的兒女(約翰一書第三章)

第三、四兩章以「上帝是愛」為主題。一開始使徒約翰提醒我們:基督徒的特權是稱為上帝的兒女,這是上帝慈愛的所及。我們稱為上帝的兒女不單只在名稱上,同時也在價值上。但他卻加上一句「親愛的弟兄阿!我們現在是上帝的兒女,將來如何,還未顯明」(2節),似在提醒我們「仍需用心」去做祂的兒女。而(一)與慈愛的上帝相交的條件(1-10節)是:(1)認識上帝愛人的果效:凡信祂的人都稱為祂的兒女(1, 2節);(2)不要被人誘惑犯罪(3-10節)——「凡行不義的就不屬上帝,不愛弟兄的也是如此」(10節);(二)與慈愛的上帝相交的憑據(11節至4:21)是:(1) 彼此相愛(11-21節)「小子們哪!我們相愛,不要只在言語和舌頭上,總要在行為和誠實上」;

上帝是愛(約翰一書第四章)

(續昨)(2)遵守主命(3:22-24)──「遵守上帝命令的,就住在上帝裡面,上帝也住在他裡面」(24節);(3)識別邪靈(1-6節)——「凡靈認耶穌基督是成了肉身來的,就是出於上帝,從此你們可以認出上帝的靈來」(2節);(4)彰顯主愛(7-21節)——「我們愛,因為上帝先愛我們」(19節)「差祂的兒子,為我們的罪作了挽回祭,這就是愛了」(10節)。彰顯主愛是從上帝先愛我們開始,而基督徒彰顯主的愛是必須的——「愛上帝的,也當愛弟兄,這是我們從上帝所受的命令」(21節)。在《約翰壹書》第五章中,使徒約翰論到在上帝家中(教會)的愛,他稱「上帝是永生的神」,因為我們都已承受了永生。

永生的神(約翰一書第五章)

與永生的神相交,我們(1)必須有信(1節上);(2)必須有愛(1節下至2節上);(3)必須有行動(2節下至3節)。同時,與永生的神相交的憑據是:(1)勝過世界(4-9節);(2)對永生不懷疑(10-13節)——「人有了上帝的兒子就有生命,沒有上帝的兒子就沒有生命」(12節);(3)遵主旨求(14-17節);(4)必不犯罪(18-20節)——「我們知道凡從上帝生的必不犯罪,從上帝生的必保守自己,那惡者也就無法害他」(18節)'(5)遠離偶像(21節)。凡屬上帝的人也有祂的屬性,上帝是光、上帝是愛、上帝是生命。我們是屬上帝的人,究竟只是徒有屬上帝的名字,抑或是名符其實是上帝的兒女呢?

真理的愛(約翰二書)

在第一世紀的末期,上帝的工人為使福音廣傳腳蹤遍各地,路途中缺乏安全的旅店,他們只能靠主內肢體的接待。相對而言,有些熱心的信徒——尤其是家庭主婦,接待了一些假借旅行佈道為名的傳播異端者,他們不認耶穌道成肉身(7節上),他們是敵基督者(7節下)。約翰為此寫這信給其中一位姊妹,首先指出她是自己和愛真理的人都愛的一位,這是在乎她愛真理的緣故(2節)。但同時又提醒她,真理是施愛的途徑,否則便是亂愛了。原則上,真理和愛心是分不開的,不要因愛而忽視真理,但也不要只顧真理而沒有愛。在接待客旅中,若有不合乎真理者,必不容許他們踏入自己的家門。

接待工人(約翰三書)

約翰從差派出外傳道之人回來的報名中,知道該猶那邊的教會有工人將遭受丟特腓的阻攔,連約翰本身的權柄也不蒙接納(9節),但該猶卻接待他們。約翰為此向該猶謝安(1, 2節),並稱讚他有忠心(5節)、愛心(6節上),對傳道者的資助(6節下及7節)和接待(8節),而對丟特腓的惡言(9-10節上)、惡行(10節下)都引以為鑑(11節)。約翰又對低米丟加以推薦(12節)。事實上,《約翰二書》與《約翰三書》可以作一比較,前者是勸人不要接待假師傅,後者是勸人要接待真工人;前者提醒蒙揀選的太太,後者目的在鼓勵該猶。前者著意提防傳謬道者,後者則提防阻擋傳真道者。前者要小心施愛,後者要繼續施愛。

力辯真理(猶大書)

本書作者是耶穌的弟弟,主在世時他未信(約7:3-8),主復活後成了基督徒(徒1:14):結了婚(林前9:5),並成為旅行佈道家。《猶大書》在文體修辭上與《雅各書》雷同,又喜「三行詩格」體裁——在25節中有18節用此格式,包含《新約》中著名的讚美頌(24, 25節),也是《新約》中唯一引用《舊約》旁經的書卷(9節引用自摩西升天記)。作者鑑於羊群備受假師傅的擾害,特意寫這神學性辯道論文,力斥其非(3節),揭發假師傅兩方面錯謬:(1)他們否認基督的位格(4節),誤解上帝恩典的教義(4節上),把人的夢作為上帝的啟示(8節);(2)他們將人的放縱情慾看為合法(4, 7, 10, 16, 18節)。請背20、21節。

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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