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【敬拜與音樂】實踐教會音樂時的考慮

 

最近,我重新讀了一本書《透過信心的眼睛看音樂》(哈羅德.白斯特(黎本正譯:基督教文藝出版社,2016。 Music Through the Eyes of Faith)。這書作者哈羅德.白斯特(Harold M. Best)是美國伊利諾伊州惠頓學院音樂學院榮休教授及榮休院長。這書也是基督教大學議會(Council of Christian Colleges & Universities)贊助的系列書籍之一。這系列有幾個 "透過信仰的眼睛看......" 不同的題目的書,它們都適合對於認真對待信仰與學術科融合題目的朋友閱讀。

音樂實踐的考慮

在這書裏面,白斯特從創造神學與創意及美學來看教會音樂的實踐。他也較深入地談到音樂質素與卓越與文化的概念。在審查教會音樂的實踐時,白斯特希望更多的教會在設計主日崇拜之前會考慮三個簡單的問題(頁190):

1. 我們需要多少,並需要甚麼種類的音樂?

2. 我們實際上只想要多少和甚麼種類的音樂?

3. 我們根據甚麼聖經和神學原則做這決定?

身為教會音樂工作者,我們需要誠實地問自己這些問題。更有益的練習會是,我們將以集體形式回答這些問題,而不僅僅是幾個個別人士回答。我們需要的東西和我們誠實的承認我們想要的東西可能並不相同。更加重要的是,我們必須承認自己的盲點和個人喜好。這些盲點和個人喜好往往決定甚麼種類的音樂,因為每一個人都有個人喜好。

如果我們需要考慮到根據聖經和神學原則做這決定,那麼我們必須學習和熟悉有關教會音樂與崇拜學的聖經和神學原則。遺憾的是,我們大多數神學院沒有以這種知識和技巧來培訓未來的傳道人。牧師通常會放棄這項責任,並讓領歌負責人來負責這項基本工作和事工。

如今,有更多裝備精良的基督徒,他們願意回應上帝的呼召繼續研究崇拜學。他們進一步研究並了解基督教崇拜的聖經和神學基礎。 但是,大多數華人教會不會考慮僱用任何人來填補這一重要的事工空缺。結果是,做成對我們信仰的不完全了解,以及膚淺的神學,經常成為我們每個星期天崇拜的 "正常" 準則。這可能是華人教會與基督教敬拜有關的討論仍停留在討論風格的水平上。 討論很少涉及內容和形式。

崇拜與音樂的適切性

另外,白斯特提出一個評估音樂的人需要面對兩個問題:

1. 甚麼是好的音樂?(What is good music?)這個是有關質素的問題。

2. 甚麼音樂對甚麼東西/情況有好處?(What music is good for what? )這個是有關環境和功能的。

從音樂的實踐,內容與環境的關係是一個大問題,因為音樂適切性是相對的也是絕對的。白斯特指出(頁194):

"為何音樂的適切性對教會是個如斯重要的主題?最主要的原因是這不能與信心和實踐分割。音樂的實踐,引伸至音樂的選取與其適切性,是有永恆的價值。用音樂進行的每一件事都要用神學和聖經來維護或批判,教會音樂非為自己而存在,非如某些人所認為是一件工具而已,也非如人所宣稱的是一些較重要的敬拜行動那半行為式、半屬靈式的編排中的一部分。音樂有屬於自己的方式,是一種要全然負責的宣述。是故,音樂的適切性不止於風格上的吻合(或不吻合),或某種美學上的禮節或體統這麼簡單,而是徹頭徹尾地用音樂表達信仰的行動由顯出明辨力的音樂選材打頭陣。"

"緊隨着這一點,音樂適切與否絕非關乎實用,而是智慧。音樂事奉者不會問用甚麼可以收到效果,或用甚麼可以把事情做得好;這只會叫音樂走回頭路,成為一個行為仲介的角色。反之,他們會問,這敬拜羣體此刻該用甚麼最好?音樂與功能之結合,正正是我們已經認識過的上帝創造所示範的:上帝所造的每樣事物都有其價值,而每一樣有價值的東西都有其功能。這樣看,就把音樂行動聯結目的及功能。因此我們可以這樣説:音樂的選擇應適切於目的和功能,而卓越是必然的成分。"


他對卓越的定義是 "追求勝於已往的過程" (頁112)。追求卓越是一個過程,"不是要勝個別人,或追及別人" 。重要的一點是,我們的明天需要勝個我們的昨天。

希望讀者能夠明白和理解崇拜與音樂的適切性,在音樂實踐時做出適切的考慮,在崇拜與音樂的事工追求卓越。

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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