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【特稿】復活的主與多馬

 

多馬又名低士馬,他是耶穌選召的十二門徒之一。"多馬" 是個希臘名字,亞蘭語是 "孿生子" 的意思,這裡稱 "多馬" 是他的名字,不是說他是孿生子。多馬是一個具有獨特個性的人﹐他的優點和缺點都十分鮮明。他的優點是真誠忠厚,知錯必改,義無反顧;他的缺點是多疑、重感覺、小信。多馬在信仰上是個實証論者﹐凡事講求証據和邏輯﹐為了找出真相,他勇於提問。多馬也是一位忠誠無偽的人,一旦知錯,勇於改正,這是他的長處。

多疑也是人類的本性,始祖亞當夏娃當初為什麼犯罪,就是因為上了惡者的當,心中被撒下了 "懷疑" 的種子:"上帝豈是真說不許你們吃園中所有樹上的果子嗎?"(創3:1)結果"一失足成千古恨"﹐成為世人犯罪的始祖。

基督徒的信仰中常常有 "疑惑" 的成分,因為人性的軟弱,沒有一個人對主的信心可以達到100%。但是﹐一個人如果能承認有疑惑,卻仍然堅信神﹐那麼他(她)還算是有一顆無偽的心。多馬便是這樣一位門徒。

聖經中記載﹐有一個患病的人,名叫拉撒路,住在伯大尼,就是馬利亞和她姊姊馬大的兄弟。姊妹二人打發人見耶穌,說:"主啊,你所愛的人拉撒路病了。" 耶穌聽見,就說:"我們的朋友拉撒路睡了,我要去喚醒他。" 門徒說:"主啊,如果他睡了,就會好過來的。" 其實耶穌是指著拉撒路的死說的,門徒卻以為他是指正常的睡眠說的。於是,耶穌公開地告訴他們:"拉撒路死了。我為你們歡喜,因為我不在那裡,是要使你們相信。現在我們到他那裡去吧。" 那稱為 "雙生子" 的多馬,對其他的門徒說:"我們也去跟他一同死吧!" 當時多馬主張和耶穌一同去,雖然他不明白耶穌所說的話,但他那真誠無偽的反應,說明他願意與主一同赴難的決心,因此他對主的忠心和敬愛是無可置疑的。另一方面他也希望藉著與耶穌同去伯大尼,來解開他心中那 "睡了" 和 "死了" 的疑惑。多馬雖然生性多疑惑,但他的疑惑是因為他渴望了解真相(約11:1--16)。

耶穌知道拉撒路在墳墓裡已經四天了。來到墳墓前面﹐那墳墓是一個洞穴,洞口有塊石頭堵住。耶穌說:"把這塊石頭挪開!" 死者的姊姊馬大對他說:"主啊,已經四天了,他必定臭了。" 於是他們把石頭挪開。耶穌舉目向天,說:"父啊,我感謝你,因為你垂聽了我",就大聲呼喊:"拉撒路,出來!" 那死了的人就出來,他的手腳都纏著布,臉上裹著巾。耶穌說:"解開他,讓他走!" 多馬雖然生性多疑惑,但當他看到了真相﹐他信服耶穌是神的兒子。

多馬在主耶穌最後的晚餐筵席上,聽見耶穌說:"我若去為你們預備了地方,就必再來接你們到我那裡去"﹐所有的門徒都對這句話沒有任何反應。正如一個人還健在的時候向周圍的人說他要離世了,身旁之人卻毫無意識。只有多馬勇敢單純而真誠地問耶穌說:"主啊,我們不知道您往哪裡去,怎麼知道那條路呢?" 耶穌因著多馬的發問,宣告了一條千古永恆的救贖之道:"我就是道路、真理、生命﹐若不藉著我﹐沒有人能到父那裡去。"(約14:6)祂為多馬指出一條永生之路,也為世人指出一條與上帝和好的路。在那離別晚餐中,率直的多馬勇於發問,此時他早已將耶穌生前曾三次說過祂將要受苦受死並復活的話拋至九霄雲外。這個一問一答異乎尋常,多馬是一個對神的話有反應的人,他願意進一步去探尋主的話背後的意思。

主耶穌受難釘死十字架,三日後復活,曾向門徒們顯現,"那十二個門徒中有稱為低土馬的多馬﹐耶穌來的時候他沒有和他們同在。那些門徒就對他說﹐我們已經看見主了。多馬的多疑又開始顯現,卻說:"我非看見他手上的釘痕﹐用指頭探入那釘痕﹐又用手探入他的肋旁﹐我總不信"。(約20:25)多馬的疑惑,使復活的主耶穌親自向他顯現,以消除他的疑惑﹐過了八日,門徒又在屋裡,多馬也和他們同在,門都關了。耶穌來,就對多馬說:"伸過你的指頭來摸我的手;伸出你的手來探入我的肋旁。不要疑惑﹐總要信。"(約20:27)主耶穌的這句話能夠使那些信心不足﹐容易疑惑的多馬醒悟。多馬慚愧地說:"我的主!我的神!" 耶穌對他說:"你因看見了我才信﹐那沒有看見就信的有福了。"(約20:24-29)

"信就是所望之事的實底﹐是未見之事的確據。"(來11:1)多馬此時已經徹底信服耶穌是神的兒子。這些事以後﹐耶穌在提比哩亞海邊又向門徒顯現,當時有西門彼得和稱為低土馬的多馬﹐並加利利的迦拿人拿但業﹐還有西庇太的兩個兒子﹐又有兩個門徒﹐都在一處。

耶穌升天後,多馬和眾信徒一起同心合意的恆切禱告:"有一座山名叫橄欖山﹐離耶路撒冷不遠﹐約有安息日可走的路程。當下門徒從那裡回耶路撒冷去。進了城﹐就上了所住的一間樓房。在那裡有彼得、約翰、雅各、安得烈、腓力、多馬、巴多羅買、馬太、亞勒腓的兒子雅各、奮銳黨的西門和雅各的兒子〔或作兄弟〕猶大。這些人﹐同著幾個婦人和耶穌的母親馬利亞並耶穌的弟兄﹐都同心合意的恆切禱告。"(徒1:12-14)神對一切生性多疑的人說:"只要憑著信心求﹐一點不疑惑。因為那疑惑的人﹐就像海中的波浪﹐被風吹動翻騰。這樣的人﹐不要想從主那裡得甚麼。心懷二意的人﹐在他一切所行的路上都沒有定見。"(雅1:6-8)

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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