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【日本樂散步】一樣又不一樣的新年

 

Chion

 

日本友人看到我年底畫的飛天賀年豬,第一個反應是「可愛い Cute」,第二個反應是為什麼不畫野豬而畫豬?咦!今年不是豬年嗎?十二生肖有野豬?一頭霧水。深入瞭解,原來中國的新年與日本的新年一樣又不一樣.....

中國的春節是在農曆年一月一日,人人回鄉團年,四處也是喜氣洋洋的火紅色裝飾物。而日本的元旦是公元年的一月一日,同樣大部份人在這天會休假回老家過年,但過年的裝飾物多是天然的稻草色或綠色,也帶白與少紅,非常不一樣的樸素清淡新年氣氛。剛開始真有點不習慣過這種安靜年,現在倒是非常享受單與家人在家過,不用跑來跑去應酬接待,「心」亂亂。一年的最後一晚,吃完只有天婦羅蝦及湯麵的簡單日本傳統年越蕎麥麵,一起感謝過去一年天父的保守,一齊為新一年立志祈禱,「心」平安。

說回賀年豬事件,話說十二支十乾在遠古時代由中國傳入日本時候,為了讓普通人容易理解子丑寅卯⋯等十二種年的分法,如中國一樣起用人民普遍認識的十二種動物,但因當時日本還沒有人養家豬,不知道豬是什麼東西,所以亥年 (「い」どし)就選用近似豬有獠牙的野豬 (「い」のしし Boar)作代表。原來對「豬」年的看法都沒有錯,只因在不同的文化中成長而有偏差。

有沒有想過為什麼人人都在新年初幾天大事慶祝?為什麼新年時或吃或做的東西有指定?為什麼要大掃除才過年?世事沒有十全十美的如意,年年日日都有煩惱事,人人都想把舊一年的惡病凶事全送走,新一年迎吉接更大的福氣。但又沒有能力控制未來,所以一年之初大事慶祝重新開始,特別祈求有能力的上天衆神明,幫助新一年可以逢凶化吉圖個「心」安。

豐富的菜餚是過年的大特色,中國有團年、開年飯,日本也有年越蕎麥麵、幾重盒子的御節料理,每樣菜也各有「好彩頭」,如栗子像黃金,鯡魚子代表多子多孫等。遠古人覺得米是上天賜人的生命之糧食,就對米大肆重視。糯米湯圓及大盆年糕是中國傳統新年食,日本人的年榚也是糯米製品,是圓形及方形的小塊。古時信仰中心京都的神社寺院、貴族開始吃用的精美圓形年榚,後來因江戶時代人口太多,要多大量生產、容易切,而產生的庶民吃的長方形年榚,燒或放在熱湯中吃用。傳說昔日每戶的大家長會把鏡餅(糯米造圓年榚,新年時節供給年神的食物)打碎分給家人,就是派「お年玉」(日本的紅包或利是)的始源。年是年神,玊是年神的魂,一人一塊意喻送予一家未來一年的生命力量,弱小的孩子們在神明保守下安全成長。江戸時代開始,就以金錢代替餅作年玉,派給孩童們。「お年玉」的錢會裝在傳統白色有圖案、小孩手掌大小的小小信封裡,多數只會派給兒女及孫子女等直系親屬,商人也只會派給自己公司的員工們,不像中國長輩們需要派給所有新年見面的孩子或未婚親友。在九州大分地區有個年玉的風俗習慣,金額越高越代表派發長輩的權威,家庭也是社會的縮影,有權有勢的人也多是有錢人。那國的孩子們都一樣喜歡過年,放假加美食,年玉也是多多益善。

年終前大掃除,是為了把家居弄清潔明亮好迎接賜福的年神,門口掃乾淨放代表主人接年神的門松,門檻上掛避厄的稻草製注連飾物,指定日子放置及取下才會得保守。中國的拜年祝福句多不勝數,如恭喜發財、萬事如意等,日本就是簡單的一句「あけましておめでとう」,有著恭喜對方平安地又長一歲的深意,中國也有過年增一歲的傳統觀念。

新年期間獨特的過節食品、擺設裝飾、節日活動等,都要有各式各樣的添福添壽趨吉避凶的意思在當中。這些帶有民間信仰特色,有點迷信的習俗,在不知不覺中成為各民族傳統風俗及生活習慣。不一樣的各地新年習俗都一樣的追求福氣和上天保佑,對未來不安的「心」在遵守做了才能平安一些。一代傳一代,一直跟著長輩做,多不會細想為什麼要這樣做,也不會特意去瞭解背後的意思。風俗又就隨社會變化而不斷改變,添加或減少來方便人們,就如糯米年糕因人口多由圓變方,要在指定日子燒掉的吸收厄運的注連飾現在只能指定收垃圾時間才能丟棄燃燒。

瞭解多一些這特色異文化,也幫助更能理解身邊新朋友們的想法和溶入本地的生活。但不會每樣都跟,而且也不需要刻意在新年做些什麼才能趨吉避凶,因我「心」裡有真福,不用去求福了。

世事無常而變化,人因不能預知未來而擔「心」,所以生出各種各式的祈福的行為,都想得上天的保守,但很多人對上天是誰也不太清楚。而我就已經認識唯一永恆不變、創造萬物的神,祂自己也在聖經中宣告: 「我是耶和華,在我以外並沒有別神,除我以外再沒有神。」(賽四十五5)。也早已得到耶和華神所賜最好最大的真福氣,由耶穌基督完成的救恩,而要使我們在祂裡面有平安。在世上我們有患難,但我們放心,祂已經勝了這世界!(約翰福音16:33)耶穌很瞭解人真正需要是什麼,一生的果效是由心發出,賜人有平安的心,好過給會壞的金銀財寶添煩惱。心有平安有盼望,眼看世界就變美。

新一年,未來的每個日子是好是壞,和人人一樣也不知道,但我有著不一樣的真平安「心」去面對!盼望世界上不一樣的每一位得著這一樣的大福氣!

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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