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Home本期文章人工智能及更改人類基因的禍患

【新聞後記】人工智能及更改人類基因的禍患

 

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新年伊始,萬象更新!華人跟不少其他族裔一様,同樣享受每年慶祝兩次新年的歡樂。謹祝各讀者:豬年快樂,主恩滿溢,事主有力!

聖經雖說「日光之下,並無新事」,但隨著年日過去,科技日新月異,全球不同界別均追求創新、創意,尋求新思維、新技術。然而,盲目追求科技及醫學突破,可能適得其反,須要在社會、道德、倫理上付出極大代價。近期兩項在醫學研究的重大突破,雖則對日後醫療研究有重大幫助,但同時已經敲響警鐘,引發全球憂慮及爭論。

人工智能成功預測蛋白質結構

去年 12 月初,DeepMind 研究團隊經過 2 年時間,透過使用可以處理大量數據的 AI 人工智能科技,繼創造出擊敗人類圍棋世界冠軍的 AI 程式 AlphaGo 之後,更克服複雜的蛋白質結構預測問題,成功打造出只須透過基因序到,准確預測蛋白 3D 結構預測模型 AlphaFold,鎖定困擾生物科學家已久的挑戰--蛋白質摺疊(protein folding)問題,被喻為是史無前例的重大醫學研究進展。因為預測蛋白質形狀,將可以了解該蛋白質在人體內的作用,進而診斷和治療由錯誤摺疊蛋白質引起的疾病,例如腦退化癥、柏金遜癥及囊狀纖維化疾病等。

更改胚胎基因誕下對愛滋病毒免疫的雙胞胎女嬰

另外,中國科學家、深圳南方科技大學副教授賀建奎,去年 11 月在一記者會上宣稱,創造出全球首宗「基因編輯」嬰兒。賀建奎表示,他使用 CRISPR-Cas9 基因編輯技術,改變 11 月出生的一對雙胞女嬰的胚胎基因,再把受精卵植入母體, 誕下世界首宗對愛滋病 HIV 病毒免疫的雙胞胎女嬰。消息立刻引發國際科學界嘩然及道德爭議;而與上述實驗有關的單位紛紛撇清關係,並反指賀建奎造假。至今賀建奎沒有再公開露面或提供更多證據證明所言非虛,有傳媒更指賀建奎目前正被軟禁於南科大校園賓館內,周圍保安極度森嚴,不能接觸外界。除了數以百計的國際科學家外,中國當局與機構和國際科學家也譴責賀建奎,說為了繁殖而對人類培胎應用基因編輯技術,是違反中國法律與醫學倫理。中國當局則指正在調查賀建奎,同時已中止這項硏究。

自從科學界於 2013 年研發出具劃時代意義的生物技術 CRISPR,讓修改基因就像文書編輯軟體的剪下貼上一般簡單,且費用和技術門檻也大幅低於傳統技術之後,科學界便一直擔心,有科學家會漠視禁令改造胚胎基因。除了英國,加拿大、澳洲、西歐各國和韓國等都有明確法例禁止這種研究,而中國就只利用守則禁止這種研究。美國沒有禁止相關研究,但有法律禁止研究人員利用聯邦政府資金進行相關實驗。

更改基因的正反意見

科學家發明新技術一般絕非為了不正當的用途,但有了相關工具後,究竟會造福人群抑或釀成人禍,往往取決於使用者的心態。

對於基因訂製相關技術來說,支持者普遍認為:

1. 修飾基因能從根本治療許多令醫師束手無策的遺傳性疾病,絕對造福人群;
2. 基因改造可突破人類在身高、智力、甚至精神狀態的先天限制;
3. 探討和研究基因定製技術有助於更深入了解遺傳與基因的奧秘。

但是反對者則擔心這些新科技可能帶來下列壞處:

1. 在尚未暸解基因之間的互動機制便冒然修改,恐造成一輩子的遺憾;

2. 減少基因多樣性,只保留人類現在認為優秀的基因,恐會降低人類對於環境劇變的適應力,導致將來面臨滅絕危機;

3. 若認為胚胎即是個體,則訂製基因過程耗費和捨棄大量胚胎,宛如一場大屠殺;

4. 訂製基因技術可能導致富者恆富、貧者恆貧,深化社會不均,甚至引發地球生態浩劫。

這次基因改造事件引發過往與「複製人」相關的道德爭議,絕對值得我們深思。當然,基因編輯技術對於治療一些先天性及無法根治的遺傳性疾病存在重要意義。但有關技術還未成熟,有機會導致「脫靶效應」(Off-target),即改變了目標以外的基因,影響或在數代後才得知,一不小心就會創造出一個「怪物」。我們是否有權力在孩子還未出生之前,便通過基因編輯改變一個孩子本來的樣子?目前基因科技極需社會各界人士參與討論,一同建立基因訂製科技的道德底線和相關規範。不過,著名科學家霍金生前就撰文警告,基因工程的突破將讓人類在本世紀內,創造出新種的超級人類,「會有法律試圖阻止人類這麼做,但貪婪的人無法抗拒誘惑」。正如聖經所說「...人心比萬物都詭詐,壞到極處,誰能識透呢?...」(耶十七:9)

我們都是按照造物主的樣式被造,下一代的身體狀況及智力均有神的計劃及美意,貿然以高科技更改,亦未必符合神的心意 。「...你們看那天上的飛鳥,也不種也不收,也不積蓄在倉裡,你們的天父尚且養活牠,你們不比飛鳥貴重得多嗎? 你們哪一個能用思慮使壽數多加一刻呢?...」(太六:26-27)

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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