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【新聞後記】有圖不一定有真相

 

Fake

 

有圖有真相,是近年一句非常流行的網絡語言。在資訊泛濫的網絡世界中,太多不盡不實的資訊及報導,大眾開始相信自己的眼睛。一張相片或一段視頻,更成為事實的確據,即英文成語「A picture is worth a thousand words」(一畫勝千言)。

由 6 月初開始,香港由反修訂《逃犯條例》所引起的社會運動不斷升級。從一百萬人上街、二百萬上街,再出現 7 月 21 月元朗白衣人暴力襲擊,之後發展成警民對立及衝突,廣泛不合作運動及罷工、罷課、罷市的三罷行動,運動遍地開花,支持的群體亦不斷增加,醫護界、其他紀律部隊,甚至公務員隊伍亦忍不住發聲。運動的發展不斷變更,後期更演變成一幕幕警方及示威人士的暴力衝突場面, 造成的社會撕裂亦更嚴重。

作為身處海外北美洲的香港移民,本應不該給予太多意見,但無論新聞及網上的資訊與視頻可以說是鋪天蓋地,令我們猶如置身現場,畫面的震撼力更觸動不少人的心靈。市民大眾往往從所見的相片、視頻及相關報導而形成自己的立場,加入成為黃絲或藍絲的一份子,繼而在社交平臺分享自己的觀點及轉載相關視頻。朋友之間,因不同立場而出現爭拗,在社交群組「離群」或 「unfriend」的比比皆是。隨著香港分裂惡化,朋友間的爭拗更見極端,甚至靜默的一群也往往被迫要表態,情況近乎失控。

圖片及視頻非事實的全部

深信自己立場的人士當然有自己的理由及觀點,但不少是基於自己所見的一些視頻,圖片或報導,而且相關視頻愈看得多,情緒愈易波動,能作出理性分析的可能愈低。作為新聞工作者,經常提醒自己不要盡信一張相片、一段視頻,甚至是一段新聞報導,原因包括:

1. 現今科技先進,改圖或剪輯視頻絕非難事,有圖不一定是真相。

2. 即使相片及視頻均是未經剪接的原圖,但附加的標題、說明、或旁白卻可以帶有創作、誤導或煽動成份,須要自行判斷。

3. 如相片及視頻均是真的,但並非代表事實的全部。如相片及視頻顯示均有示威者武力攻擊警方,可能只是極少數的個別例子;可能是示威者先遭受警方武力對待才作出還擊;甚至片中的穿黑衣戴面罩的人士並非真正的示威者。同樣地,如相片及視頻顯示均有警員暴力攻擊示威者,可能只是極少數的個別例子; 也可能是警員先遭示威者襲擊才作出還擊。

4. 出自大報章及大電視台新聞報導的也未必可盡信。各大傳媒不少都有自己的立場,採訪和編輯方針均有所不同。不少評論已發現,某些電視新聞在做直播示威衝突場面時,比較接近現場實際情況,但當在主要新聞報導時,經剪輯的報導經已「避重就輕」。至於其他眾多的網上新聞或資訊平臺,立場背景及報導的專業水平均存有極大差異,市民大眾真的要自行選擇。

留意前文後理自行判斷

美國總統特朗普經常使用「假新聞」(Fake News) 一詞批評對他進行負面報導的媒體。但實際上,不論傳統媒體或網上的大量資訊均未能完全反映事實的全部,尤其香港的情況比較複雜,大眾必須小心選擇,多作比較,一些老牌及信譽良好的媒體,可信性仍然稍高。香港新聞工作者區家麟提出識別假新聞的幾點基本步驟,很值得參考。

設立預警系統:不輕信令人嘩然的圖片或文章;

訊息源頭要清楚:判斷來源的可信度;

不要只看標題:可能文不對題,要看完內文才轉發;

留意評論:參考讀者留言澄清錯誤。

留意日期:留意報導日期,是否舊聞新推。

搜尋相片:利用 Google 圖片搜尋,看看是否舊相亂用,或文不對圖。

有片未必有真相:要判斷片段前後發生甚麼事;

調查及統計資料要細心讀:避免統計誤用;

小心斷章取義:要留意前文後理,撮錄有無扭曲。

最後,以香港五十四位不同宗派教牧及信徒領袖於 8 月上旬發表的聯署牧函作結。牧函希望各方表達訴求時務必克制,執法當局也不應濫用權力和武力,港府應採取措施化解是次危機,而成立具公信力的獨立調查委員會可使香港重返正途。他們又呼籲全港信徒彼此同心,尋求合一,為這城代求。「所以,你們既是神的選民,聖潔蒙愛的人,就要存憐憫、恩慈、謙虛、溫柔、忍耐的心。倘若這人與那人有嫌隙,總要彼此包容,彼此饒恕;主怎樣饒恕了你們,你們也要怎樣饒恕人。在這一切之外,要存著愛心,愛心就是聯絡全德的。」(西三:12-15)

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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