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【事事關心】基督徒參與政治的角色

 

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剛剛過去的聯邦大選之前的一個月,筆者多次被問到:若沒有一個政黨的政綱和倫理道德立場是符合聖經教導的時候,我還應該投票嗎?若基督徒不加入政黨而獨立參選,值得支持嗎 ?

基督徒應該參與政治,可以從創世記第1章26-28節的「文化使命」看到端倪,也可以繼續從第 41 章,知道約瑟成為埃及的宰相;出埃及記清楚指出,摩西是以色列民族領袖,統領該民族的一切事宜,這當然就是政治;先知但以理雖然身處外邦人的國家,卻被巴比倫王揀選作省長和哲士的總理,繼而還作波斯王的一位被看重的政要。上述幾位人物的一生,就是毫無疑問地肯定:基督徒應該參與政治的事宜。

固然,聖經沒有清楚道出,信徒應否接納民主制度而且,舊約的撒母耳記上第8章給人的一般理解,是上帝不贊同民眾對撒母耳那樣的訴求。但若神絕對是不喜悅人類社會有民主制度,那為什麼現今歐美國家的基督教會都用選舉的方式來管理教會呢你們的教會作一切主要決定之前一定是投票作決擇吧,無論是建堂、選拔長老執事或聘請牧師,不是嗎

教會本來是確認上帝之權柄的群體,照理不需要民主選舉吧,為何要民主投票來委任原因是每一個福音派基督徒都知道而應該認同的:現今這世界仍然是罪人當道的,人只要一有權力,就往往無所不用其極,以致濫用權力,就算在教會也是不能避免的常情。所以,教會在經過好幾百年的不光榮體驗之後,逼不得已採用民主制度來管理教會。由此觀之,基督教會其實是深明人的罪性對於現實世界的影響,也由此來思考基督徒在社會上的參與。

既然連承認神之主權的教會都接納民主制度,那麼,在這個不尊重聖經、不接納耶穌基督、不認同上帝權柄的世俗社會,我們更認為民主制度是逼不得已,必須採用的方法來管理社會。正如很多人都聽過這個見解:對比民主和(獨裁)極權制度,前者是「兩個魔鬼中比較小的一個」(英語世界所說的 the lesser of two evils).

試想,兩者中,哪個會願意聆聽民間疾苦、尊重個人的意見、保障個人的良知和財產自從馬丁路德的世代,過往 500 年世界歷史清楚指出,民主制度會比較尊重和捍衛上述這些,而相反地,極權制度是個人良知和財產的死敵!也是為什麼,過往 500 年,歐美民主國家確實在領導世界的文明發展,雖然歐美國家絕非是完美的社會,這是我必須強調的事實。

在現實的選舉制度下,要找到你自己完全認同的政策和個人品格的候選人,這是不切實際的理想。這是為何很多基督徒不會投票和參與政治選舉的最大原因。然而,當你能夠將為何支持民主與「基督徒在民主制度裡扮演什麼的角色」這議題串連起來,你應該在思維上有所改觀。

基督徒在社會上扮演什麼角色呢 不少信徒都認為答案可以從福音書卷中找到。主耶穌在登山寶訓中責成: 「你們是世上的光和鹽」。一方面,基督徒可以幫助社會大眾分辨是非對錯。另一方面,也可以指出社會的黑暗,致力於對事實真相的追求,為大眾提出解決的途徑。這就帶出一個從政者崇高的目標,對基督徒來說,可以是一個神聖的任務 !

固然,基督徒明白當罪性還在社會當道之際,我們不可能盼望一步到位,一次選舉或一任國會議員就馬上達成你的目標,所以,某程度上,基督徒從政者要懂得忍耐等候適當時機來辦事,否則,就像妄想一步登天!

由此推論,我們一般選民應該有的觀念是:投票給一個人是沒有絕對的錯和對的選擇,只會是相對的對錯而已。況且,若這次作錯了一次決定,3、4 年之後,仍然有機會更正,這是民主選舉的優點!我們不用長期面對一次錯誤決定所選出來的那個或那些人,在永遠不會完美的世界中,這確實是民主政治最明顯的長處。

再者,只有真正有效的民主制度,才可以讓立法、司法、行政這三種權力達成互相制衡,而只有權力的制衡,社會大眾才會有比較多的公平機會和公正的法庭審判,這是基督徒應該重視的要素,也是現今不少歐美人民堅持的價值觀和政治理念。

願基督徒都把持以下兩句箴言,在社會事務上,包括政府選舉上,履行作光和鹽的角色:「人所行的,在自己眼中都看為正,惟有耶和華衡量人心。行仁義公平,比獻祭更蒙耶和華悅納。」(21:2-3)

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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