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Home本期文章曾蔭權、朴槿惠與法治

【事事關心】曾蔭權、朴槿惠與法治

 

東亞洲地區的法治情況,可以從最近兩月發生在香港和南韓的大事略見端倪。

p-20香港前行政長官曾蔭權涉嫌隱瞞與雄濤廣播公司老闆的租屋利益關係,於今年 2 月 22 日遭陪審團裁定「公職人員行為失當罪」成立,成為香港首名被刑事定罪的前特首,法院宣判了 20 個月監禁期,至於另一控罪「行政長官收受利益罪」暫時未能有決議,將會於 9 月重新審理。

談到南韓,朴槿惠於今年 3 月 10 日成為韓國歷史上首位遭罷黜的民選總統,原因是一樁牽涉到以其權力幫助一位親信獲得利益的案件,她被韓國憲法法院審理、裁決,並且決定彈劾這位女總統。 三星集團 (SAMSUNG) 總裁的獨子兼集團控制人李在鎔(Jay Y. Lee)也因該醜聞被控告。韓國憲法法院的裁決標誌著韓國歷史上首位女總統、前冷戰時期軍人獨裁者朴正熙的女兒不再享有總統豁免權,有可能因涉嫌犯有腐敗、濫權、瀆職罪而將會受到刑事訴訟。

筆者對兩位從政者落得如此下場有點惋惜,因為兩者都可算曾盡意、盡力為其管理之地方的人民辦事,只是一時之貪婪 (香港人一般所說的貪小便宜而已)、或以為自己只是處於灰色地帶而不認為自己會犯什麼罪,以至「一失足成千古恨」。確實可惜,兩者都在權力的試探下失去了智慧的判斷,正如聖經警告世人,當然也包括政府官員,要提防人性的弱點:"......不可受賄賂、因為賄賂能叫智慧人的眼變瞎了、又能顛倒義人的話"(申命記 16:19下)。

不過,從社會須要法治這方面來看,關於這兩位從政者的判決也反映出好的一方面:就是法律面前,人人平等,不因為你有(或曾經有) 權力和地位而不追究你的罪過 ! 雖然有些人認為這兩件事的背後都有政治的動機,然而,無論如何, 這兩件事都值得香港人和南韓人民感到安慰或慶幸,因為法官的裁決是很清晰地根據既定的法律或憲法的基礎而作。這也是任何追求社會進步的人值得思考的新發展,顯示出東亞地區在法治這範疇上的進步,若這些貪污行為發生于 30 或 40 年前,這兩位政府領袖絕對不會遇到他們現今這樣嚴厲的裁決 !

不過,香港另外一件事卻引起當地的法律界人士擔憂。現任大律師公會主席林定國最近提及,有些市民不滿 7 名警員因襲擊示威者而被判囚兩年,而辱罵主審法官是「狗官」一事。這位律師公會主席對辱罵法官的言論提出譴責,他譴責那些詆譭法官的人士踰越言論自由界線,甚至構成藐視法庭,削弱公眾對法官及司法制度的尊重。他認為市民應有的權利,是用理性去討論,從而幫助法制日臻完善 :若市民經過理性考慮法庭判決的理據及法律原則,仍然反對其判決,這可能反映法律有需要改善之處;而對不同罪行的判刑指引,亦會隨社會發展需要不斷更新。因此,他敦促法律界人士多多協助市民理解判決理由及制度運作,促進大眾理性討論。他更呼籲:若非本港法院主動尋求釋法,人大運用釋法權時應「極之謹慎」,以避免社會及國際間對本港法治精神產生「不必要的懷疑」。

面對香港司法權的分立這個議題,他指出這議題須包括:法庭判案時不受干預,法官獨立依據法律及證據而作判決,以及有獨立任免法官的制度。同時,林定國認為法治亦是一種文化,若上述 7名警員襲擊示威者事件超越某個界線,影響市民整體對於執法和司法的信心,會引致司法制度失信於民,那將會難於維繫到整個法治環境。

筆者認為香港過去 50 年的安定繁榮,是因為當地所建立的法律受到人民的廣泛尊重,司法制度的運作基本上依循一個獨立於政治架構的法庭部門,以致人們覺得法庭判決是完全依據既定法律原則的,法官判案不須要兼顧任何政治因素。

聖經裡也有兩節金句幫助我們思考這個問題:"作官的原不是叫行善的懼怕﹐乃是叫作惡的懼怕。......因為他不是空空的佩劍﹐他是神的用人﹐是伸冤的﹐刑罰那作惡的。" (羅馬書13: 3-4)

願世人不論身處任何國家,都在這樣的法治範疇上一同進步。

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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