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首頁本期文章百年傳奇--武昌曇華林人物之韋棣華

【特稿】百年傳奇--武昌曇華林人物之韋棣華

 

Marry 11899 年的冬季,美國單身女子 Mary Elizabeth Wood 來到 1871 年美國聖公會在這裡辦的文華書院來找她的弟弟 Robert Edward Wood。她在美國媒體上看到義和團殺害外國傳教士的消息,感到在武昌曇華林做牧師的弟弟凶多吉少,於是決定過去找人。她知道自己一旦去了中國就萬事難料,臨行前給好友發了張明信片,告知自己的去向以防不測。

姐弟倆見面後姐姐要帶弟弟回國,弟弟卻不以為然,帶著姐姐四處參觀,向她展示了文華書院的發展,所見所聞再次令姐姐震驚。中國清朝的孩子們是這麼需要接受教育的機會!Mary 自己是聖公會的基督徒,被眼前的一切深深感動了,便決定留下來教英語。她弟弟為她起了個中文名叫韋棣華,這年她 40 歲。

備課時,韋棣華發現這裡的圖書少得出奇。人們告訴她中國沒有公共圖書館,雖有不少藏書樓,但藏書家視書為收藏品,並不外借,所以人們很難看到書本。韋棣華 1903 年在校園上僅 20 平米的一個八角亭式的建築裡辦起了中國最早的圖書館,史稱 "八角亭圖書館"。

當時湖廣總督張之洞施行 "新政",興辦了眾多實業,有些具亞洲領先地位。50多所學堂大多雲集武昌。韋棣華看到經濟文化如此發展,竟沒有一座公共圖書館,她看到了異象:建一座圖書館,讓每個中國人都享有閱讀圖書的權利和機會!用她自己的話說:"I feel that I have a call to do this work and that is part of God's plan for China."(我感到自己得到呼召來從事此工作,這也是上帝對中國的計劃之組成部分。)

在 45 歲那一年,韋棣華帶著異象隻身回國,一邊在紐約和波士頓兩所學院裡進修圖書館學,一邊四處分享異象,請求有感動的各界人士捐書捐款。韋棣華向美國民眾講述了武漢三鎮經濟和教育事業的空前發展,也描述了中國的藏書樓情況。盡管韋棣華名不見經傳,接觸到的人也有限,但強大的感染力隨著她的分享,感動了很多人。第一個捐款的是紐約哥倫比亞大學校長 DR. Seth Low,然後美國著名的慈善家 Stokes 家族資助了她的圖書館項目。

Marry 21908 年,48 歲的韋棣華帶著 3000 冊捐贈的圖書,十萬美元的捐款回到了武昌曇華林。隨後她開始了圖書館建造的準備工作。館址選在了武昌曇華林當時文華大學臨曇華林街的地方。

一座公共圖書館於 1910 年 5 月 16 日終於對外開放,實行 "開架" 政策,允許人們走進去自由翻閱。這座圖書館當時的名稱叫 "文華公書林",意為公之於眾,也就是今天的公共圖書館。出乎意料,開館後進圖書館看書的寥寥無幾。

怎麼辦?50 歲的韋棣華首先採用 "請進來" 的辦法,每周舉辦音樂會,放幻燈片招待附近學校的學生。可惜這個措施果效不明顯。隨後韋棣華索性 "送書上門",對外開展圖書借閱服務。漢陽鐵廠、醫院、私宅、商鋪、煤礦、兵營、學校,甚至作坊,韋棣華都組織 "流動圖書館" 前去送書。她還在武昌開設了三個固定閱覽室。

起初人們不敢接受圖書,怕弄壞損毀要賠償。韋棣華表態說:"若非有意所為,不言賠償!" 她認為圖書損毀,比起人們讀書得到的益來,還是後者的益處大!

當時教育界需要的新的科學、社會學、政治學、傳記等類書。但公書林藏書有限,英文書來不及翻譯,一時還不能完全滿足民眾的需求,韋棣華就辦講座進行服務。經過多年的努力,武漢三鎮的讀者對文華公書林的功能及使用有了認識,在曇華林的文華公書林也成了三鎮最為重要的文化場所,進圖書館的人多了起來。

Marry 3韋棣華的 "開架" 政策受到了所在文華大學英籍校長翟雅各的反對。翟雅各認為此舉嚴重影響到了學校秩序,現在不少圖書也有損毀,要求韋棣華立即停止 "開架" 政策。韋棣華並不認同這一看法,她認為 "開架" 政策很有必要,因為人們說不上來要看什麼書,更不可能知道有什麼書,所以進去自己找最合適。圖書有些被損毀,也是批評教育的事。文華公書林面向公眾,每一位中國都享有自由出入的權利,無論貧富貴賤,無論男女老幼,無論上過學與否都可以進來。那些沒知識進來看書更為重要!翟雅各校長說,若是如此,學校不會再給圖書館提供財政撥款。

近 60 歲的韋棣華面對校長的決定,還是堅持讓文華公書林服務全社會。她這時候頭腦非常清醒,她不能因為校方的財政撥款,就剝奪每個中國人享有閱讀書籍的權利和機會。她一人承擔了 "開架" 政策後果,但把閱讀的機會留給了中國人。

在韋棣華 60 至 70 歲年間,她創立圖書館學科,親自帶出中國圖書館學最早的六位人才。1931 年 5 月 1 日,韋棣華因病在武昌曇華林去世,享年 70 歲,她的骨灰默默運回家鄉。韋棣華在生命最後的三十年裡,在武昌曇華林將上帝對中國人的愛,具體活了出來,以生命的服侍在中國近代史上留下了愛的印記!

文華公書林 1985 年被拆除,人們也大都不知道韋棣華的故事了。但在當地的 "韋棣華紀念館" 裡,韋棣華的一生被詳細地紀錄下來,配以圖片及文物的展覽,歡迎大家光臨參觀。

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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