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【特稿】「耶和華」名字翻譯小史(19)

 

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神蹟出現:浪子回頭

梵蒂岡天主教眼見基督教翻譯聖經,好不熱鬧,並且平反了神的名字,把耶和華 Jehovah 和耶威 Yahweh 名字放回聖經裡,矛頭直指他們公元 405 年的拉丁【武加大譯本】,和 1610 年 的英譯 Douay–Rheims Bible(DR) ,兩本譯本的翻譯災難,釐天大錯,刪掉了神的名字。在平反神名的風氣下,梵蒂岡天主教當然感到有壓力去糾正他們千多年來的錯謬,

1966 Jerusalem Bible (JB)

1943年,教宗 Pius XII 介於過往譯本都是譯自羅哲武的拉丁【武加大譯本】,因此向羅馬天主教士發出通諭 Divino afflante Spiritu,要求翻譯自希伯來和希臘原文的新譯本。在耶路撒冷 École Biblique 的多明尼加 Dominicans 教士響應,1956 年翻譯了法文的 La Bible de Jérusalem,此便是 1966 年英譯本 Jerusalem Bible 的前身。

1966 年,梵蒂岡有三個出人意表驚喜:

第一,便是英譯本 The Jerusalem Bible (JB),此譯本和丁道爾一樣,翻譯自希伯來和希臘原文。並在 1985 年校訂為 New Jerusalem Bible。它是繼 1610 年 Douay-Rheims Version 後的第二本重點英語譯本。

第二,是它沒有跟從法文譯本 La Bible de Jérusalem以the Eternal『永恆主』代替神名,更正了公元 405 哲羅姆 Jerome 在【武加大譯本】Vulgate 的『避諱抄寫』,譯本裡全數還原名字,直接默認了一千五百多年羅哲武的錯誤。

第三,他竟然選用了發音比較正確的名 Yahweh, 全書出現 6,823次。更在譯者委員會序言中說明:『『主是神』這個說法,是無厘頭的贅述,清楚的說法應是『耶威是神。』「To say: 'The Lord is God' is surely a tautology, as to say 'Yahweh is God' is not.」 1966 Jerusalem Bible Preface

值得一提是此譯本文筆秀麗,【約那書】並由英國文豪J. R. R. Tolkien執筆。是繼 1610 年 Douay-Rheims Version 之後最受歡迎的英譯本,連英國聖公會也採用。

可是,Yahweh 的名字始終是曇花一現,到了 2007 年,the Catholic Truth Society 按照 Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments 和 the Pontifical Biblical Commission 的指引,出版了 CTS New Catholic Bible。此譯本其實便是 1966 年的 Jerusalem Bible (JB),只是復辟把全部 6,823 次 Yahweh 刪除,重新以 Lord 代替和 【詩篇】改用了 1963 的 Grail Psalter.

1968 年【聖經思高譯本】

1968 年 12 月 25 日聖誕節,雷永明神父(Gabriele M. Allegra),翻譯出版了【聖經思高譯本】(Studium Biblicum Version, Si Gao Sheng Jing),是現今天主教普遍使用,也是梵蒂岡教廷認可的中文譯本。

『維基百科:耶和華』:『『雅威』名字在《旧约》大約出現 50 次。在附录2 第2章(甲1)指出:「天主的名字:最主要的是:『El. Elohim』中文譯為『天主』,和『Jahve』中文譯作『上主』、『自有者』或『雅威』。

『Elohim』在舊約出現超過兩千五百次,此名是複數型,表達「威嚴,豐盛,偉大,完美,神性一切的集其大成」之意,主要表明天主是造物者,供應受造物一切所需。

『Jahve』是人由啟示才認識的天主的名字,是天主自己啟示的名字。『Elohim』亦可以指其他的受造物(天上的存在),『Jahve』則只用以指唯一永生的天主。」

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%80%B6%E5%92%8C%E8%8F%AF

【聖經思高譯本】詩篇23篇:『達味詩歌,上主是我的牧者,我實在一無所缺。』

 

1969 The Modern Language Bible-The New Berkeley Version in Modern English

譯者 Gerrit Verkuyl。此譯本,四次把【四字神名 Tetragrammatonיהרה 】翻譯為 Jehovah,出現在【創世紀】22:14, 【出埃及記】3:15, 6:3 和【以賽亞書】12:2。

1970 New English Bible

牛津大學出版 Oxford University Press。 此譯本,七次把【四字神名 Tetragrammatonיהרה 】翻譯為 Jehovah,三次是神的名字,【出埃及記】3: 15-16, 6:3,四次是地方名字出現,【創世紀】22:14, 【出埃及記】17:15, 【士師記】 6:24和【以西結書】48:35。

1970年【呂振中譯本】

呂牧師以盡量直譯原文為原則,舊約原文底本『馬所拉文本』(Masoretic Text)等,新約修訂版的原文用 D. Eberhard Nestle (1941, 17th ed.)。 1970 年香港出版【呂振中譯舊新約聖經】。此譯本沒有『耶和華』的名。

詩篇23篇:『永恆主是牧養我的﹔我沒有缺乏。』

1971 New American Standard Bible (NASB)

1901 年的 American Standard Version (ASV) ,曾被修訂三次。 1952 年,第一次被修訂,慘遭復辟噩運,本來有 6,823 次神 Jehovah 的名字,全部被刪除,蕩然無存,篡改為『LORD主』,開了倒車。 以下為三次的修訂:

1) 1952 Revised Standard Version (RSV)

2) 1971 New American Standard Bible (NASB)
3) 1989 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)

The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation of the Bible by the Lockman Foundation. The New Testament was first published in 1963, and the complete Bible in 1971. The most recent edition of the NASB text was published in 1995.

https://books.google.ca/books?id=Se9YB864jPMC


https://books.google.ca/books?id=Se9YB864jPMC&pg=PT10&redir_esc=y

 

"YHWH (rendered as "Jehovah" in the original A.S.V.) is rendered LORD or GOD in capital letters in the NASB. The committee stated the reason as: "This name has not been pronounced by the Jews because of reverence for the great sacredness of the divine name. Therefore, it has been consistently translated LORD. The only exception is when it occurs in immediate proximity to the word Lord, that is, Adonai. In that case it is regularly translated GOD in order to avoid confusion. It is known that for many years YHWH has been transliterated as Yahweh, however no complete certainty attaches to this pronunciation." This is in direct contrast to the preface of ASV of 70 years earlier, where the committee explained that "the American Revisers...were brought to the unanimous conviction that a Jewish superstition, which regarded the Divine Name as too sacred to be uttered, ought no longer to dominate in the English or any other version of the Old Testament."

1971 New American Bible

可惜,梵蒂岡對平反神名的熱誠,似乎曇花一現,如今,羅馬天主教有差不多20本英譯聖經,但除了 1966  Jerusalem Bible 外, 只有 1971 New American Bible (NAB),裡有 Yahweh 的名字,但只出現了三次。此兩譯本也曾再版,1985 New Jerusalem Bible (NJB),2011 New American Bible Revised Edition (NABRE) ,都保留了 Yahweh 的名。天主教其他的譯本,還是把神的名篡改為『主』Lord。

梵蒂岡對翻譯神名的立場,說明『四字神名』應翻譯為中文『主』希伯來文 Adonai;希臘文 Kyrios; 英語 Lord;意大利文 Signore; 法文 Seigneur;德文 Herr;西班牙語 Señor 等,冥頑不靈。

A 2008 letter from the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments explicitly forbids the use of the Divine Name in worship texts, stating: 『For the translation of the biblical text in modern languages, intended for the liturgical usage of the Church, what is already prescribed by n. 41 of the Instruction Liturgiam authenticam is to be followed; that is, the divine tetragrammaton is to be rendered by the equivalent of Adonai/Kyrios; Lord, Signore, Seigneur, Herr, Señor, etc.』

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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