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Home本期文章「耶和華」名字翻譯小史(16)

【特稿】「耶和華」名字翻譯小史(16)


1611 King James Version (KJV)

繼伊莉莎白一世 Elizabeth I (1558–1603),便是 James I (1603-1625),第一個統一英國,愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭的英皇。當時,他與英國教會都不喜歡 Geneva Bible 裡濃厚 Calvinist 與 Puritan 的更正神學與註釋。1611 年,他也以丁道爾手稿為本,完成了【英皇欽定本】Authorized Version (AV),後又稱 King James Version (KJV),取締了 Coverdale Bible (Great Bible),成為第三本在英國欽定的聖經。

1611 年的 King James Version (KJV)流傳至今,廣受歡迎,在序言中亦肯定了神的名字為  Jehovah。此譯本,八次把【四字神名 Tetragrammatonיהרה 】翻譯為 Jehovah,五次為神的名字,【出埃及記】6:3,和【詩篇】68:4; 83:18,【以賽亞】12:2; 26,三次在地方名字出現,【創世紀】22:14, 【出埃及記】 17:15, 【士師記】6:24,。

1971 The King James II Version (1971)

Jay P. Green, Sr., published by Associated Publishers。此譯本,保留了【英皇欽定本】原來八次的Jehovah名字,另外再多加一次,在 【詩篇】68:4。

1610 Douay–Rheims Bible

羅馬天主教眼見英皇 James I 計劃出版第三本欽定聖經,又鑑於翻譯潮流已成定局,無法再禁止教徒閱讀聖經,為免自己的信徒閱讀更正教徒的譯本,本來嚴禁翻譯聖經的羅馬天主教,無奈也要屈服,低頭跟風,也來英譯聖經,以濟信徒的飢渴。他們並且特別趕上在 1610 年【英皇欽定本】完成前一年,搶先出版了以英法兩地為名的 Douay–Rheims Bible(DR),以免信徒沾上快要出版的【英皇欽定本】。意料之中,此羅馬天主教譯本只是翻譯錯漏的拉丁【武加大譯本】,裡面當然沒有神的名。

諷刺的是此譯本把本來【出埃及記】6:3的『and my name Yahweh 我的名耶和華』翻譯成『and my name Adonai 我的名『主』』,然後又多此一舉的在後面加上註腳,解釋道:『『主』並非當日神告訴摩西的名字,只是放在這裡來代替我們不知道的名字 Adonai is not the name here vttered to Moyses but is redde in place of the vnknowen name』。

後來,在 1750 的修訂本 The Challoner revision of the Douay–Rheims Bible 裡,補充說:『近代譯者沿用 Jehovah 的名字,但此名由恒古到現在,無論猶太人或基督信徒,都不曾知道的 some moderns have framed the name Jehovah, unknown to all the ancients, whether Jews or Christians."』此話正確地指出 Jehovah 的名字,是虛構的 hybrid 字,實在從來不存在的。

1816 年馬殊曼【新舊遺詔全書】

馬殊曼 Joshua Marshman 是英國浸信會宣教士,拉撒 Joannes Lassar 是澳門出生的亞美尼亞人(Armenian)。1807 年,拉撒先翻譯【馬太福音】,然後再由馬殊曼核對原文修改,再交由中國人潤筆。1816 年,在印度的塞蘭坡 Serampore 完成【新約全書】,在 1822 年完成【舊約全書】,由印度塞蘭坡 Serampore 差會出版社 The Mission Press 出版 【新舊遺詔全書】。由於馬殊曼的浸信宗背景,譯本採用『蘸』字翻譯浸禮 baptism,有別於馬禮遜譯本用『洗』字。https://www.translatebible.com/blog/c007

1823 年馬禮遜【神天聖書】

馬殊曼是在印度翻譯聖經。1807 年,倫敦傳道會差蘇格蘭傳教士馬禮遜 Robert Morrison 是近代第一位到中國的宣教士,他抵廣州後便開始翻譯聖經。1823 年,馬禮遜,和米憐 William Milne,得到印刷工人梁發的幫助,在廣州完成了【馬禮遜米憐譯本】,在馬六甲以【神天聖書】之名出版。【舊約】稱【舊遺詔書】、【新約】則稱為【新遺詔書】。今天許多宗教的術語『天國』、『弟兄』、『福音』、『使徒』等詞彙都是來自馬禮遜譯本。

馬禮遜【神天聖書】與馬殊曼【新舊遺詔全書】合稱爲「二馬譯本」,兩個譯本都用「神」字譯 God。可惜,【神天聖書】沒有放回神的名字。例如,詩篇23篇:『(大五得所作之詩):神主為我之牧者,故我未致受缺。』此【神天聖書】可見於【信望愛信仰與聖經資源中心 https://bible.fhl.net/

1833 Webster's Bible Translation

1833 年,Noah Webster的 Webster's Bible Translation,修訂【英皇欽定本】,除了以上八次Jehovah的出現, 再多加了七次,【以賽亞】51:21, 【耶利米】16:21; 23:6; 32:18; 33:16, 【阿摩司書】5:8 和【彌迦書】4:13。

1854 年【委辦譯本】

鴉片戰爭,中國戰敗,【南京條約】割地賠款,英國獲得香港殖民地,也獲得在中國通商地區宣教合法化的權利。1843 年 8 月,英美兩國聖經公會合作重新翻譯聖經,但在翻譯過程中,對用『上帝』還是用『神』各執己見,結果在 1852 年出版了兩種版本,美國聖經公會採用『神』,英國聖經公會採用『上帝』。

而英國倫敦會,米憐的兒子美魏茶 William Charles Milne 等,則在 1853 自行修訂了【舊約】。1854 年,英國倫敦會合拼了英國聖經公會的 【新約】,出版了【代表譯本】聖經,亦稱【委辦譯本】(Delegate's Version),此譯本則採用了『耶和華』的名,例如,詩篇23篇:『(大闢 David 所作):耶和華爲牧兮、吾是以無匱乏兮。』自始中國人便有『耶和華』在他們的聖經裡。 此【委辦譯本】可見於【信望愛信仰與聖經資源中心 https://bible.fhl.net 】

1872 年【高德文理譯本】

高德(Josiah T. Goddard 1813–1854),美國浸禮會來華傳教士。他和羅爾梯(Edward Clemens Lord)、憐爲仁(William Dean)三人曾屬委辦譯本委員會成員,但他們與馬殊曼同屬浸禮宗,堅持用『浸』禮,不同意馬禮遜【神天聖書】和美魏茶【委辦譯本】所用的『洗』禮,因而自立門戶翻譯聖經,參考「馬禮遜譯本」、「麥都思譯本」及「馬殊曼譯本」輔助翻譯聖經。 高德負責譯文,憐爲仁負責註釋,然後互相審閱對方的譯文。1850 年,出版了創世記,1851 年出版了出埃及記和馬太福音,於 1853 年出版新約【聖經新遺詔全書】,由寧波美國浸禮會真神堂出版。1854 年高德去世,1868 年,憐為仁完成【舊約】,1872 年,再由羅梯爾修訂【新約】,合訂以【高德譯本】名義出版。

後世對【高德譯本】的評語,總離不開文筆優美、語言通俗易懂,文字表達清晰,比【委辦譯本】更貼近原文等等。『曾經對譯文作出類似讚賞的學者包括:慕維廉(Muirhead, 1890, p.36)、海恩波(Broomhall, 1934, p.71)、羅旭榮(1988, p.38)、趙維本(1993, p.22)等。(尤思德,2002,第111至112頁) https://www.translatebible.com/blog/c014

此譯本【舊約】把把【四字神名 Tetragrammatonיהרה 】譯作『爺華』。此譯本將 God 譯為神,將 baptism 譯為浸。

https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-hk/高德譯本

http://a2z.fhl.net/fore/fore41.html

https://www.translatebible.com/blog/c014

尤思德 Jost Oliver Zetzsche 2002 年著, 蔡錦圖譯《和合本與中文聖經翻譯》香港:國際聖經協會(現稱:漢語聖經協會) [ISBN: 9789625132440][中譯本]。

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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