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【特稿】「耶和華」名字翻譯小史(18)

 

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第三個突破
1902 Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR)

譯者是英國的 Joseph Bryant Rotherham。此譯本,特點是把【四字神名 Tetragrammatonיהרה 】翻譯為 Yahweh。神的名從 Jehovah 琢磨到 Yahweh,也可說是第三個突破。

1914 The Modern Reader's Bible

Richard Moulton 修訂 1885 年的 Revised Version (RV1885) 。此譯本的特點的下了註解,亦保留了 1894 年再版的十六次 Jehovah 名字。

1919 年【文理新舊約聖書】

1890 年,英國及海外聖經公會(British and Foreign Bible Society,美國聖經公會(American Bible Society,和蘇格蘭聖經公會(National Bible Society of Scotland,在上海會議中決議以三種文體翻譯聖經,文言文 (深文理),半文言半白話(淺文理),和官話(即國語) ,並以英國出版的 Revised Version,及舊約【馬所拉文本】(Masoretic Text)作原文底本。

1904 年出版【淺文理和合譯本新約全書】。1906 年出版【深文理和合譯本新約全書】。此時,為響應晚清的白話文運動,深文理和淺文理兩個執行委員會,在 1907 年合併共同出版一個『文理譯本』,1919 年六月出版了【文理新舊約聖書】。其後在 1920 至 1923 年間作了修訂,1934 年再版,之後便再沒有再修訂了。此譯本則也採用了『耶和華』的名。例如,詩篇23篇:『(大衛之詩):耶和華為我牧、我不匱乏兮。』此【文理譯本】可見於【信望愛信仰與聖經資源中心 https://bible.fhl.net】網站。

1919 年【國語和合譯本】

1907 年出版【官話/國語和合譯本新約】,1919 年 4 月,在上海出版了【官話和合譯本舊新約全書】,分『神』和『上帝』兩種版本。在1939 年改名爲【國語和合譯本】出版。1962 年,出版改名爲【聖經】,並修訂字詞,排列段落,分段標題,加入插圖。 此【和合本】至今仍然是全球華人常用的譯本。此譯本則也採用了『耶和華』的名。例如,詩篇23篇:『(大衛的詩。)耶和華是我的牧者,我必不致缺乏。此【國語和合譯本】可見於【信望愛信仰與聖經資源中心 https://bible.fhl.net】網站。

1987 年,由香港中國神學研究院編輯,證道出版社於在香港出版串珠注釋。1989 年,聯合聖經公會、香港聖經公會、台灣聖經公會出版【新標點和合本】。1993 年,浸信會出版【現代標點和合本】(浸、神、紅字版),即用『神』和『浸』翻譯『上帝』和 『洗』。 1995 年,華人聖經會王正中牧師主編、台灣浸宣書局出版【和合本尋根版】,每個詞均注上相應的 Strong 氏原文編號。該會又在 1999 年出版【聖經雙排版】。2010 年,由聯合聖經公會、香港聖經公會、台灣聖經公會聯合出版【和合本修訂版】。

《和合本聖經》—《舊約全書》出現 6400 次;《新約全書》只 1 次在啟示錄19:1夾注出現。

【和合本】選用『耶和華』的拼音,出現了約 4,924次。詩篇23篇:『〔大衛的詩。〕耶和華是我的牧者.我必不至缺乏。』

1935 The Bible: An American Translation

譯者美國芝加哥大學 Edgar Johnson Goodspeed (1871–1962) 。在序言裏說:「這譯本我們跟從正統猶太傳統,把「主」代替「雅巍」,把「主上帝」代替「主耶和華」。所有大草 'Lord' 或 'God' 都是代表原文的「雅巍」。因此,任何讀者欲保留原文的滋味,就必需把 'Lord' 或 'God' 呼讀作「雅巍」。」

"In this translation we have followed the orthodox Jewish tradition and substituted 'the Lord' for the name 'Yahweh' and the phrase 'the Lord God' for the phrase 'the Lord Yahweh'. In all cases where 'Lord; or 'God' represents an original 'Yahweh' small capitals are employed. Anyone, therefore, who desires to retain the flavor of the original text has but to read 'Yahweh' wherever he sees LORD or GOD" Preface: 1935 Bible; J. M. Powis Smith and Edgar J. Goodspeed

1936 The Holy Scriptures (1936, 1951)

此譯本的特點是由猶太人譯者Alexander Harkavy,Hebrew Publishing Company, 英譯希伯來聖經。此譯本,七次把【四字神名Tetragrammatonיהרה 】翻譯為Jehovah,出現地方跟【英王欽定本】一樣,除了【以賽亞書】26:4。

1949 Bible in Basic English (BBE)

1949 年, S. H. Hooke 為關顧英語水平不高的人讀聖經,用簡單的 850 個英文字,加 100 個詩詞詞彙,再加 50 個聖經名詞,出版 Bible in Basic English (BBE)。此譯本,五次把【四字神名Tetragrammatonיהרה 】翻譯為 Yahweh。出現在【出埃及記】6:2; 6:3; 6:6; 6:8,【詩篇】83:18。

1952 Revised Standard Version (RSV)

1870 年英美兩國合作修訂 1611 年的【英皇欽定本】King James Version (KJV)。1885 年,英國出版了 Revised Version (RV),或稱 English Revised Version (ERV) 。1901 年,美國出版 The American Revision,後來簡稱 American Standard Version (ASV),兩者都選用 Jehovah。其中 ASV 更是把 Jehovah 的名字全數回歸到聖經裡,出現 6,823 次。

1885 年英國出版的 Revised Version (RV) ,是唯一英國欽定的【英皇欽定本】King James Version (KJV)修訂本。1894 年,再版加了次經 Apocrypha 。此譯本,保留了【英皇欽定本】原來八次的 Jehovah名字,另外再多加八次,在【出埃及記】6:2,6–8, 【詩篇】68:20, 【以賽亞】49:14, 【耶利米】16:21 ,和【哈巴谷書】3:19。

1885 年的 Revised Version (RV1885) ,在 1952 年重新校訂為 Revised Standard Version (RSV)。可惜修訂本復辟,把 RV1885 的十六次 Jehovah 全部刪除。譯者在序言裡,講述他們刪除神名的兩個復辟原因:『翻譯委員會基於兩個原因回到較為人熟識的【英皇欽定本】處理方法(即是把神名字刪掉):


1)希伯來文從來沒有用過 Jehovah 這個神的名字。
2)早在教會成立以前,猶太教已不再有需要用獨一真神的私人名字來把祂從別的神中鑑別出來;神的名字已不適合於現在普世的基督教會的信仰裡。

"For two reasons the committee has returned to the more familiar usage of the King James Version (that is, omitting the name of God): (1)the word 'Jehovah' does not accurately represent any form of the Name ever used in Hebrew; (2) the use of any proper name for the one and only God, as though there were other gods from whom he had to be distinguished, was discontinued in Judaism before the Christian era and is entirely inappropriate for the universal faith of the Christian Church." 1952 Revised Standard Version.

1952 年 RSV 的譯者進一步解釋:『譯本回復到 KJV 和 RV處理【四字神名 Tetragrammaton יהרה 】的做法。按著 1611年【英皇欽定本】King James Version 與 1885 年 Revised Version(RV1885)修訂本的做法,RV1885 把神名翻譯成『LORD』 或 『GOD』,視乎那章節猶太人習慣是用 『Adonai主』或『Elohim神』來讀,而 1901 年 American Standard Version(ASV) 則把神名翻譯作 Jehovah。

1952 Revised Standard Version:『The translators reverted to the KJV and RV's practice of translating the Tetragrammaton, or the Divine Name, YHWH. In accordance with the 1611 King James Version (KJV) and the 1885 Revised Version(RV1885), the RSV translated it as 『LORD』 or 『GOD』 (depending on whether the Hebrew of the particular verse was read 『Adonai』 or 『Elohim』 in Jewish practice), whereas the ASV had translated it 『Jehovah』。』

1954 Amplified Bible (1987)

此譯本,一次把【四字神名 Tetragrammatonיהרה 】翻譯為 Yahweh,出現在【出埃及記】6:3:『I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as God Almighty [El- Shaddai], but by My name the LORD [Yahweh—the redemptive name of God] I did not make Myself known to them [in acts and great miracles].』

1961 The New English Bible (NT 1961, OT 1970)

英國牛津大學出版,此譯本,八次把【四字神名 Tetragrammatonיהרה 】翻譯為Jehovah。兩次是神的名字【出埃及記】3:15; 6:3,四次是地方名字出現【創世紀】22:14, 【出埃及記】17:15, 【士師記】 6:24和【以西結書】48:35。

 

喜樂 Joy

喜樂的心乃是良藥;憂傷的靈使骨枯乾。箴言 17:22
A cheerful heart is good medicine, but a crushed spirit dries up the bones. Proverbs 17:22

然而,我要因耶和華歡欣,因救我的 神喜樂。哈巴谷書 3:18
yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will be joyful in God my Savior. Habakkuk 3:18

要常常喜樂,不住的禱告,凡事謝恩。帖撒羅尼迦前書 5:16-17
Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances. 1 Thessalonians 5:16-17

饒恕 Forgiveness

主啊,你本為良善,樂意饒恕人,有豐盛的慈愛賜給凡求告你的人。詩篇 86:5
You, Lord, are forgiving and good, abounding in love to all who call to you. Psalm 86:5

你不要說:“我要以惡報惡”;要等候耶和華,他必拯救你。箴言 20:22
Do not say, “I’ll pay you back for this wrong!” Wait for the LORD, and he will avenge you. Proverbs 6:14

你們饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必饒恕你們的過犯;馬太福音 6:14
For if you forgive other people when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. Matthew 6:14

你們不饒恕人的過犯,你們的天父也必不饒恕你們的過犯。馬太福音 6:15
But if you do not forgive others their sins, your Father will not forgive your sins. Matthew 6:15

你們各人若不從心裡饒恕你的弟兄,我天父也要這樣待你們了。馬太福音 18:35
This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother or sister from your heart. Matthew 18:35

謙卑 Humility

敬畏耶和華是智慧的訓誨;尊榮以前,必有謙卑。箴言 15:33
Wisdom’s instruction is to fear the LORD, and humility comes before honor. Proverbs 15:33

敬畏耶和華心存謙卑,就得富有、尊榮、生命為賞賜。箴言 22:4
Humility is the fear of the LORD; its wages are riches and honor and life. Proverbs 22:4

凡事不可結黨,不可貪圖虛浮的榮耀;只要存心謙卑,各人看別人比自己強。腓立比書 2:3
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Philippians 2:3

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

驕傲 Pride

驕傲來,羞恥也來;謙遜人卻有智慧。箴言 11:2
When pride comes, then comes disgrace, but with humility comes wisdom. Proverbs 11:2

驕傲只啟爭競;聽勸言的,卻有智慧。箴言 13:10
Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves. Proverbs 13:10

驕傲在敗壞以先;狂心在跌倒之前。箴言 16:18
Pride goes before destruction, a haughty spirit before a fall. Proverbs 16:18

但他賜更多的恩典,所以經上說:神阻擋驕傲的人,賜恩給謙卑的人。雅各書 4:6
But he gives us more grace. That is why Scripture says:“God opposes the proud but shows favor to the humble.” James 4:6

忍耐 Patience

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

並且你們要為我的名,被眾人恨惡,惟有忍耐到底的,必然得救。馬可福音 13:13
Everyone will hate you because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. Mark 13:13

不但如此,就是在患難中也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance. Romans 5:3

我們行善,不可喪志;若不灰心,到了時候就要收成加拉太書 6:9
Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up. Galatians 6:9

你們也當忍耐,堅固你們的心,因為主來的日子近了。雅各書 5:8
You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near. James 5:8

溫柔 Meekness

回答柔和,使怒消退;言語暴戾,觸動怒氣。箴言 15:1
A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. Proverbs 15:1

溫柔的人有福了,因為他們必承受地土。馬太福音 5:5
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5

用溫柔勸戒那抵擋的人;或者 神給他們悔改的心,可以明白真道。提摩太後書 2:25
Opponents must be gently instructed, in the hope that God will grant them repentance leading them to a knowledge of the truth. 2 Timothy 2:25

只要以裡面存著長久溫柔、安靜的心為妝飾;這在 神面前是極寶貴的。彼得前書 3:4
Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. 1 Peter 3:4

嫉妒 Envy

不要為作惡的心懷不平,也不要向那行不義的生出嫉妒。詩篇 37:1
Do not fret because of those who are evil or be envious of those who do wrong. Psalm 37:1

心中安靜是肉體的生命;嫉妒是骨中的朽爛。箴言 14:30
A heart at peace gives life to the body, but envy rots the bones. Proverbs 14:30

在何處有嫉妒、紛爭,就在何處有擾亂和各樣的壞事。雅各書 3:16
For where you have envy and selfish ambition, there you find disorder and every evil practice. James 3:16

生氣 Anger

當止住怒氣,離棄忿怒;不要心懷不平,以致作惡。詩篇 37:8
Refrain from anger and turn from wrath; do not fret—it leads only to evil. Psalm 37:8

好生氣的人,不可與他結交;暴怒的人,不可與他來往。箴言 22:24
Do not make friends with a hot-tempered person, do not associate with one easily angered. Proverbs 22:24

愚妄人怒氣全發;智慧人忍氣含怒。箴言 29:11
Fools give full vent to their rage, but the wise bring calm in the end. Proverbs 29:11

生氣卻不要犯罪.不可含怒到日落。以弗所書 4:26
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry. Ephesians 4:26

我親愛的弟兄們,這是你們所知道的,但你們各人要快快的聽,慢慢的說,慢慢的動怒,因為人的怒氣並不成就 神的義。雅各書 1:19,20
My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. James 1:19,20

災難 Calamity

謹守口與舌的、就保守自己免受災難。箴言 21:23
Those who guard their mouths and their tongues keep themselves from calamity. Proverbs 21:23

民要攻打民、國要攻打國、多處必有地震、饑荒.這都是災難的起頭。馬可福音 13:8
Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be earthquakes in various places, and famines. These are the beginning of birth pains. Mark 13:8

憂愁 Worry

你們不要憂愁、因靠耶和華而得的喜樂是你們的力量。尼希米記 8:10
Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength. Nehemiah 8:10

主雖使人憂愁, 還要照他諸般的慈愛發憐憫。耶利米哀歌 3:32
Though he brings grief, he will show compassion, so great is his unfailing love. Lamentations 3:32

凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。馬太福音 11:28
Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

我留下平安給你們、我將我的平安賜給你們.我所賜的、不像世人所賜的.你們心裏不要憂愁、也不要膽怯。約翰福音 14:27
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid. John 14:27

應當一無掛慮,只要凡事藉著禱告、祈求和感謝,將你們所要的告訴神。神所賜出人意外的平安,必在基督耶穌裡,保守你們的心懷意念。腓立比書 4:6,7
Do not be anxious about anything, but in every situation, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God. And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. Philippians 4:6,7

因此, 你們是大有喜樂, 但如今, 在百般的試煉中暫時憂愁。彼得前書 1:6
In all this you greatly rejoice, though now for a little while you may have had to suffer grief in all kinds of trials. 1 Peter 1:6

患難 Trouble, Suffering

義人多有苦難,但耶和華救他脫離這一切。詩篇 34:19
The righteous person may have many troubles, but the LORD delivers him from them all. Psalm 34:19

神是我們的避難所,是我們的力量,是我們在患難中隨時的幫助!詩篇 46:1
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Psalm 46:1

耶和華本為善,在患難的日子為人的保障,並且認得那些投靠他的人。那鴻書 1:7
The LORD is good, a refuge in times of trouble. He cares for those who trust in him. Nahum 1:7

為義受逼迫的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。馬太福音 5:10
Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 5:10

不但如此,就是在患難中,也是歡歡喜喜的。因為知道患難生忍耐。羅馬書 5:3
Not only so, but we also glory in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; Romans 5:3

我想現在的苦楚,若比將來要顯於我們的榮耀,就不足介意了。羅馬書 8:18
I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. Romans 8:18

因為你們蒙恩,不但得以信服基督,並要為他受苦。腓立比書 1:29
For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. Philippians 1:29

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